Truths about stoneware pottery antique. Various reports and ancient documentation says, in Indonesian waters there are tens of thousands of sinking vessels. The shipwrecks along with their precious cargo, from the 4th century to World War II, must be an interesting underwater cultural legacy.
In addition to interesting reviews, sinking vessels and their cargoes have become economical commodities with high selling value. The proof, the results of the appointment of the ship sank in the Java Sea, about 12 miles north of Cirebon waters, West Java, the sale value is estimated at least 720 million dollars
Before any appointment has been granted permission from the government, illegal appointment from the past is still ongoing. “Now, the police are investigating the appointment of cultural heritage objects (BCB) in Blanakan, Subang regency, which is suspected (re) involving Berger Michael Hatcher maritime archaeologist,” said Director of Bawar Air Heritage, Directorate General of History and Archeology at the Ministry of Culture And Tourism Surya Helmi.
Previous cases, Berger Michael Hatcher managed to auction off illegal archaeological seabed Indonesia. The British-born Australian citizen in 1940 became a billionaire after finding 225 gold bars and 160,000 ceramics in Riau waters. The loot was auctioned at Christie’s, Christie, Amsterdam, in 1986 worth 16 million US dollars.
These cases of underwater BCB theft do not only cause the destruction of the site because they ignore the cultural values, but Indonesia will also lose important information for the development of science, character education of the nation and the history of the nation’s struggle.
From sinking vessels, almost always ceramics are found in relatively large quantities. Bambang Budi Utomo from Arkenas Research Center who became the editor of the 10th Century Karam ship book in the North Java Sea of Cirebon said the sinking vessels whose artefacts had been lifted came from commercial vessels, most of them merchandise, almost 90 percent ceramic. The rest is pottery and glass items.
The company lifting seafloor artifacts in the north Java Sea Cirebon reported, the object raised amounted to 541 341 pieces, consisting of 519,942 pieces of ceramic objects and 21,399 pieces of objects from various materials, such as wood, glass, metal, and others.
Of the 256,943 ceramic pieces of economic value, 221,124 are porcelain and rock material, while 35,819 pieces are unfinished. Of the hundreds of thousands of ceramic fruit, there are at least nine forms of containers, namely bowls, plates, cepuk, pasu, teapots, jars, jars, incense, and ink.
Identification of ceramics
Porcelain and rock material are very clearly not locally made. So far such items have been found in various sites in Indonesia, and are known to come from various countries, such as China, Southeast Asia (Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia), Middle East, Japan and Europe (such as the Netherlands and Germany).
According to Widiati, an ancient ceramic researcher and expert, Ceramics are often found in Indonesia from China (2nd-20th century AD), Thailand (13th-18th century AD), Vietnam (8th-18th century AD) Europe (17th-20th century AD), Japan (17th-20th century AD), and the Middle East (7th-14th century AD).
How to identify the ceramic so that it is known the period of ceramic making it?
According Widiati, in identifying the findings of ceramics, it first observed the intact form of the ceramic.
“After that the space element, the place where it was found (the site), and or the place where it was originally made (state, province, district, and furnace) .Then it also observed the element of time, pertarikhan, the relative dating of the period Making porcelain ceramics or such materials, usually based on a known Chinese government period, “he said.
Widiati, who is now Head of Sub Directorate of Utilization Control at Directorate of Under Water of Ministry of Culture and Tourism, argues, to determine when the ceramics were made, among others can be known based on the color glaze or decorative patterns. For example, single-glazed Vietnamese ceramics, such as white, green, or black, are known to date from about the 13th to the 14th century. Or Thai ceramics that have a decoration of fish placed on the inner surface of the bottom of the container is known to date from the 14th century.
There are at least 10 characteristics that can be used for ceramic analysis purposes. The goal is to know the origin of manufacture, the form of origin and dating. The ten characteristics are fractional, magnitude, fraction orientation, basic material type, color of base material, decorative pattern, ornamental technique, glaze color, glaze technique, and residual workmanship.
To determine the origin of manufacture area, used features that include fractional form, fractional quantity, thickness, orientation, type of base material, decorative pattern, color